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2017 Publication

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Phosphorylated fraction of H2AX as a measurement for DNA damage in cancer cells and potential applications of a novel assay.
Ji J, Zhang Y, Redon CE, Reinhold WC, Chen AP, Fogli LK, Holbeck SL, Parchment RE, Hollingshead M, Tomaszewski JE, Dudon Q, Pommier Y, Doroshow JH, Bonner WM.
Plos One. 2017 Feb 3.
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Abstract:

Phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) is a sensitive marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but the variability of H2AX expression in different cell and tissue types makes it difficult to interpret the meaning of the γ-H2AX level. Furthermore, the assays commonly used for γ-H2AX detection utilize laborious and low-throughput microscopy-based methods. We describe here an ELISA assay that measures both phosphorylated H2AX and total H2AX absolute amounts to determine the percentage of γ-H2AX, providing a normalized value representative of the amount of DNA damage. We demonstrate the utility of the assay to measure DSBs introduced by either ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging agents in cultured cells and in xenograft models. Furthermore, utilizing the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel, we show a correlation between the basal fraction of γ-H2AX and cellular mutation levels. This additional application highlights the ability of the assay to measure γ-H2AX levels in many extracts at once, making it possible to correlate findings with other cellular characteristics. Overall, the γ-H2AX ELISA represents a novel approach to quantifying DNA damage, which may lead to a better understanding of mutagenic pathways in cancer and provide a useful biomarker for monitoring the effectiveness of DNA-damaging anticancer agents.


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