Abbreviations: ara-C, 1-b-D-arabinofuransylcytosine; ARF, alternate reading frame of the ink4a locus (murine p19, human p14); ATM, ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene/protein; BRCT, homologous to breast cancer protein 1 C-terminal module; CAK, Cdk-activating kinase (consisting of Cyclin H, Cdk7, and p36MAT1); CK1, casein kinase 1, etc.; CPT, camptothecin; CycA, Cyclin A, etc.; DNA-PK, DNA-dependent protein kinase (catalytic unit, not including Ku); DPase, DNA polymerase; ERCC, excision-repair cross-complementing; dsb, DNA double-strand breaks or double-strand ends; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; E2, recognition sites in promoters that bind E2F transcription factors; HDAC, histone deacetylase; HMG, high-mobility group protein; Ku, Ku70:Ku80/86 heterodimer (same as XRCC5 and 6); IR, ionizing radiation; MMS, methylmethanesulfonate; NER, nucleotide excision repair; pAR, poly(ADP-ribose); PARP, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; Plk, mammalian polo-like kinase; RHA, RNA helicase A; RPA, replication protein A (comprised of subunits p70RPA1, p34RPA2, and p14RPA3); RPase, RNA polymerase; ssb, DNA single-strand breaks; ssDNA, single-stranded DNA; TAF, TBP-associated factor; TBP, TATA-binding protein; UV, ultraviolet light; TFIIH, transcription factor IIH; Top1, topoisomerase I; WT1, Wilms’ tumor suppressor gene/protein; XPA, xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A gene/protein (similarly for XPB, etc.); XRCC1, X-ray repair cross-complementing gene/protein 1.